# Closeness

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**Closeness** is a radial measure of centrality that favors actors who are connected with many others via short paths.

The raw closeness score of a node is defined as the reciprocal of its total distance to those it can reach via directed paths,

where denotes the length of a shortest directed path from to . If a link strength has been selected, the length of an -path is the sum of the corresponding attribute values of all links in the path.

## Definition (simple case)

On directed, unweighted graphs that are strongly connected, the closeness centrality of a node is defined as

,

where denotes the length of a shortest directed path from to .